TED演讲者：Megan Alubicki Flick / Megan Alubicki Flick
演讲标题：The power of multilingualism in education / 多语教育的力量
内容概要：Despite being ranked fifth of all countries in the world for language diversity, the United States tends to focus heavily on English in schools, with the native languages of students often going unrecognized. Educator Megan Alubicki Flick advocates for dual language programs— which focus on developing and sustaining two languages— and explains how they can cultivate and maintain languages, show respect for different cultures, and foster connections in schools and communities.
美国语言多样性世界排名第五，但在校园里，教学重心偏向英语，学生的母语往往不受重视。教育家梅根·阿卢比基·弗利克（Megan Alubicki Flick）提倡开展双语课程，关注发展和维系两种语言，并阐释了如何培育和维系语言、尊重不同文化，以及促进学校和社区的联系。
【1】Many years ago, I was finishing college and I was in that, "so what's next?" phase of life, and I decided I wanted to see the world.
很多年前我读完大学, 正处于探索 “接下来干什么？”的阶段, 最终决定去看一看世界。
【2】And that was all well and good, but to do that I needed money and a job.
【3】So I headed off to my college's advising center, thumbed through a Transitions Abroad magazine, and there it was.
所以我前往大学咨询中心, 翻阅了一本旅行杂志, 找到了我想要的。
【4】It was this ad that said something like, "Do you want to teach English abroad?"
【5】And I thought, "well, if that'll get me abroad, then yeah, I guess perhaps I do."
【6】So fast forward to several months later, I had a fellowship and I was off to Finland for a year to teach English to elementary school students.
几个月以后, 我拿到了补贴金, 准备前往芬兰待一年, 在那教小学生英语。
【7】Now, before I got to Finland, I already knew that it was a really cool place, but what I didn't realize was how linguistically diverse a place it was.
在我去芬兰前, 我就知道那里很酷, 但我没有意识到 那的语言是如此多样。
【8】Because I was on my way to teach elementary school students English, but those same students, unbeknownst to me, were already studying Finnish and Swedish and sometimes other languages in school.
我正准备教小学生英语, 但我不知道的是, 这些学生已经在学芬兰语和瑞典语了,有时还会学些别的语言。
【9】At the time I thought Finland must be some sort of multilingual anomaly.
【10】It couldn't be the norm for elementary school students to be learning multiple languages, could it?
【11】Well, it turns out, globally, it often is.
【12】America really is more of a global standout, and not for good reason in this case.
【13】The US stands out due to its monolingualism in schools, which is in sharp contrast to the fact that this country is an incredibly linguistically diverse place.
而是因为美国学校的单语制, 这和芬兰形成了鲜明的对比, 芬兰是语言极其多样的国家。
【14】So, how do I know?
【15】Well, I've been working with and studying multilingual learners for over 20 years.
我研究多语学习者 已经 20 多年了,
【16】I've been a language learner, I've taught English as a second language and English as a foreign language.
我是一个语言学习者, 从事英语作为第二语言 及外语的教学工作,
【17】And I've carried out language policy research in several different countries.
【18】And this is what I've realized: here in the US, we're doing it wrong.
【19】America is not tapping into what I see as our greatest asset, which is our linguistic diversity.
美国没有充分利用 我们最宝贵的财富, 那便是语言多样性。
【20】So you might be thinking, okay, but does this even matter?
【21】And if it matters, what do we do about it?
【22】So, spoiler alert: it matters.
【23】And I'm going to talk about what we can do about it.
【24】But first, I'd like you to come with me on a journey to an American public elementary school.
首先,我想让大家 和我一起踏上一段旅程, 前往美国的公立小学。
【25】Feel free to imagine your own from growing up, or maybe one near where you currently live, or maybe even one from TV.
你也可以回想你上的小学, 或者你家附近的某个小学, 甚至是电视里看到的小学。
【26】Now, let's go inside.
【27】Once we step in, it's immediately evident that this is a multilingual place.
【28】So, how do you know?
【29】Maybe there's posters and decor in multiple languages.
【30】Maybe you hear conversations happening with adults and students in different languages, and maybe there's even signs that explicitly say that multiple languages are welcomed and can be supported.
可能是因为你听到了老师和学生 用不同的语言对话; 甚至墙上可能会贴有标语, 表示学校支持和认可多语。
【31】Now let's walk down the hall into a classroom.
【32】Inside, students are doing a math lesson in English.
【33】They're working in small groups on word problems as the teacher walks around the class supporting the learning.
采用小组分工合作, 一同探讨应用题, 老师在小组间走动, 辅导他们学习。
【34】And then, in Spanish, the teacher says it's time to transition to a science lesson.
【35】She talks about the science content, hands out some papers for the day's assignment.
【36】The students attentively listen, and then they begin to interact with each other and the new science content all in Spanish.
学生们专注地听讲, 当他们开始互动时, 都是用西班牙语 讨论科学课的内容。
【37】So one subject in English and the next subject in Spanish.
【39】How does this feel?
【40】Full disclosure, to me, this is like a school-based multilingual dream come true.
【41】But I bet that this also might feel kind of unnerving or surprising or a little bit chaotic to some.
但我保证也会有人 感到不安或吃惊, 又或是感觉这样很混乱。
【42】And I think that those feelings may stem from the fact that this true embracing of multilingualism is very, very unusual in the US and it's very uncommon to see in American schools.
我认为这些感受 都源自一个事实, 即这种真正的多语制, 在美国是非常罕见的, 很少能在美国学校里见到。
【43】But here's the thing, here in the US, we have tons of raw potential when it comes to language diversity.
然而实际上在美国, 在语言多样性方面, 我们有巨大的潜力。
【44】In fact, in 2022, Ethnologue ranked the US 5th of all countries in the world in terms of language diversity with 337 spoken languages.
根据《民族语》 2022 年发布的排名, 美国语言多样性 在全世界排第五, 共有 337 种口语。
【45】Similarly, nearly one quarter of students in American schools speak a home language other than English.
【46】This means that millions of students possess rich language skills, but we're not encouraging the development of those skills alongside the development of English.
这意味着数百万计的学生 都有丰富的语言技能, 我们却没有鼓励 这些技能的发展, 只重视英语的发展。
【47】And therefore we are not tapping into the linguistic diversity that exists among us and is already present.
因此我们没有 充分发掘语言多样性, 这都是现成现有的资源。
【48】When students enter schools, their language use and English proficiency is screened, and if they're in need of support, they're provided it.
学生入学时, 会检查其英语的 使用方式和熟练程度, 如果他们需要支持, 就会有人帮助他们。
【49】But their home and heritage languages are often set aside due to long standing policies and practices that focus heavily on English.
但他们的家庭和传统语言 往往会被忽视, 这是因为长期以来 政策和措施都严重偏向英语。
【50】Now, don't get me wrong I am not here to tell you that students educated in America shouldn't learn English.
别误解我的意思, 我不是说在美国接受教育的学生 不该学英语。
【51】Well, there's no official language in this country.
【53】There is no official language in the US.
【54】English absolutely is a lingua franca and it's an important sociocultural and economic tool for communicating in various settings.
英语绝对是一种通用语言, 同时在社会、文化和经济方面 发挥着重要的作用, 在各种场合都能使用。
【55】However, students' home and heritage languages are incredibly valuable too.
【56】And that is what we're missing.
【57】Students are entering schools with rich language backgrounds and cultural experience and knowledge.
【58】And schools are often ill-equipped to support that, which means that these languages often go uncelebrated, or even worse, over time, they're lost and forgotten.
学校却没有资源 支持这些语言的发展。 这意味着这些语言常被忽略, 甚至在岁月中失传、被遗忘。
【59】So it's time that we stop leveraging dated policies and operating schools in a monolingual way.
【60】But there's good news here.
【61】Because research shows that there's a language development program model called dual language that is highly effective for all students.
研究显示有一种 语言发展教学模式, 叫做“双语教学”, 对所有学生都很有效。
【62】And by all, I mean all.
【63】There are different kinds of dual language programs, but the general gist is that participating students receive instruction in two languages, meaning that over time they become bilingual.
现在有多种双语教学计划, 主要都是让学生 接受双语的教学, 随着时间推移, 他们就成双语者了。
【64】Historically in the US, language policies and programs have often been subtractive, but dual language programs are additive, which means that they're focused on developing, cultivating, and sustaining two languages.
在美国历史上,语言政策和计划 通常都是在做减法, 而双语教学是做加法, 意味着其关注的是 发展、培养和维系两种语言。
【65】And research shows that these programs are really good for all kids.
【66】Not only are they the most effective type of instruction for students who speak a language other than English, but they also benefit native English speakers,
它们是最有效的教学计划, 不仅是对讲英语之外 语言的学生而言, 对英语母语者也是有益的,
【67】and students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, and students with special education needs and exceptionalities.
对种族、民族背景多样的学生 也是有益的, 对有特殊教育需求和特殊照顾的 学生也是有益的。
【68】Students enter these programs speaking one language and they come out of these programs speaking, listening, reading, and writing in two languages proficiently.
单语学生接受这类教学后, 就可以使用两门语言, 进行流利的听说读写。
【69】Dual language programs work and we could implement them around the country.
【70】Because the fact of the matter is that being multilingual matters, both for the individual and for our society.
【71】Speaking multiple languages expands our worldview.
【72】It connects us to our own identity and links us to our communities, our cultures, and our families.
【73】And research shows that there's these incredible cognitive benefits too.
【74】Brains function better and can do more when they're multilingual.
【75】For instance, research indicates that bilingual brains are better than their monolingual counterparts at conflict management, and at executive functioning activities, like multitasking.
例如研究表明, 双语大脑在以下方面 都比单语大脑表现得好, 包括矛盾处理 和执行功能的活动, 如处理多个任务。
【76】I mean, the effects of this are incredibly far-reaching and impactful.
【77】It really is amazing, isn't it?
【78】And it doesn't end there, because there's these economic and geopolitical benefits too.
这还不是全部, 因为多语还能产生 经济和地缘政治效益。
【79】More and more jobs seek bilingual candidates, and being multilingual often leads to more lucrative job opportunities with global potential.
越来越多职位 开始寻找双语人才, 会多门语言的人 能获得更高薪的就业机会, 具备走向全球的潜力。
【80】Around the world, schools are producing bi- and trilingual individuals.
【81】But that's notably uncommon here, which means that students educated in America are at a disadvantage globally in this way.
而这在美国却很少见, 意味着美国培养的学生 在全球竞争中处于劣势。
【82】As technology shrinks our world and leads to faster communication, and commerce, and political action, being multilingual can lead to increased opportunities for travel, study, work, and personal growth.
科技让世界变得更小, 加速了人们间的交流、 贸易及政治活动。 会讲多门语言 能够带来很多机会, 包括旅游、学习、 工作和自我成长。
【83】So let's go back to that journey we took.
【84】Because the fact of the matter is that doesn't have to be a figment of our imagination.
【85】That journey took us to a dual language program, and what we need to do is build and grow these programs in order to build and grow multilingualism.
不管是那段前往 双语教学的旅途, 还是为了建立和发展多语制, 所需要付出的努力。
【86】Through dual language, we have the opportunity to cultivate languages, honor cultural and linguistic capital, and foster connections within schools and communities.
在双语模式下, 我们有机会培育语言, 充分利用文化与语言财富, 促进校园和社区间的联系。
【87】So instead of thinking of it as a journey, let's think of it as a foundation upon which to build better school programs that honor the language diversity that exists among us.
所以与其把它 想象成一段旅途, 不如将它作为 优化教学方案的基础, 以尊重我们身上的 语言多样性。
【88】It's the first step towards celebrating and elevating multilingualism.
【89】Together, we can help students develop skills in more than one language.
【90】Students who will then go on to be multilingual adults, workers, travelers, community members, and global citizens.
学生们会成为 多语的工作者、旅者、 社区成员和世界公民。